We lead a few projects and contribute to several others. Most of the larger experiments involve an element of fieldwork, typically using the BAe-146 Atmospheric Research Aircraft. Some of the project we're involved with are listed here:
- We report independent emission estimates of UK GHGs based on new atmospheric measurements of CO2, CH4, and N2O. We help coordinate the NERC GHG Emissions and Feedback Programme and lead the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) project.
- Primarily, we are reporting the first measurement-based flux estimates of CO2 from the UK based on a collection of data collected by GAUGE investigators from several Universities and research institutes.
- We are running an art-science collaboration. CO2 concentrations are beamed from the side of Summerhall, Edinburgh. Hourly data are available from Twitter (https://twitter.com/co2_live)and higher frequency data are archived and will be made freely available.
- We have installed a new laser heterodyne radiometer from NASA to measure SWIR columns of CO2 and CH4. This is based at the Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill.
- We develop new models of wetlands and biomass burning as part of the new Methane Observations and Yearly Assessments (MOYA) project led by Royal Holloway, University of London.
- Building on previous group work we are developing simple process-based models of wetland and pyrogenic emissions of CH4 to better understand observed atmospheric variations of this GHG.
- We develop methods to use satellite observations of trace gases and aerosol to improve understanding of the carbon cycle and tropospheric chemistry. This is funded by the National Centre for Earth Observation (NCEO). Palmer is also the science director for NCEO.
- We help understand the global carbon cycle using a range of measurements of atmospheric and land surface properties. In particular, we using novel ways to use columns measurements of CO2 (NASA OCO-2, Japanese GOSAT), and XCH4 (GOSAT) to infer geographical distributions of sources/sinks of carbon. We are also involved with the Chinese TANSat instrument and are part of the science team of the UK-French MicroCarb satellite (due for launch in 2020).
- We are using a nested version of the GEOS-Chem model to interpret satellite observations of HCHO from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument over the Indian subcontinent to understand the parent VOC emissions and how revised inventories will impact organic aerosol production.
- We model the emissions and atmospheric transport of short-lived halogenated compounds over the western Pacific to improve quantitative understanding of stratospheric ozone depletion. This is part of the NERC Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) project.
- We using the GEOS-Chem model to understand the transport and chemical fate of very short-live substances (in particular bromoform and dibromomethane). Using an inverse model approach we are using these data to quantify their ocean emissions.
- We use satellite observations and models to relate ground-based measurements of surface air pollutants over Beijing, China to a wider geographical region. This is part of the AIRPOLL project that is led by the University of Birmingham.
In another research strand my group is also investigating other planetary atmospheres:
- We are using the Unified Model to study the chemical composition of Earth-like exoplanets determine their habitability.
- We are preparing for atmospheric spectra from the MIRI instrument, aboard the James Webb Space Telescope, to infer atmospheric properties of exoplanets
- We are developing a 1-D photochemical model to study the atmosphere of Mars using upcoming data for the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter.